Domesday Book is a detailed survey and valuation of landed property in England at the end of the 11th century. It was completed in 1086. In 1811, a volume of indexes was added. The Domesday Book was created a couple of decades after the Norman Invasion, at a time when the name William was very fashionable, thanks to William the Conqueror. The Domesday Book was a newsletter published by the Castle & Crusade Society (a subsidiary of the International Federation of Wargaming, or IFW) beginning in 1970. $170.00. A byname is an additional name to a person’s main name, which often allows for a clearer identification of the individual. Britannica Bookbinding - Winchester Domesday Book.jpg 561 × 791; 93 KB. It came to be known as “Domesday” as a metaphor for the last day of judgement. The use of Roman numerals also led to countless mistakes. Holdings of bishops followed, then of the abbeys and religious houses, then of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants (servientes), and Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. Hallam 1986, pp. in the newly conquered territories of England. In the 11th century, surnames were still in a state of flux and many people still did not have what we would consider a surname. , The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that planning for the survey was conducted in 1085, and the book's colophon states the survey was completed in 1086. Also he commissioned them to record in writing, 'How much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls;' and though I may be prolix and tedious, 'What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it was worth.' The book argues that the Domesday survey was also an inquest into individual sheriffs and officials; this affected the character of the data in Domesday, particularly in the matter of the boroughs. In the 11th century, surnames were still in a state of flux and many people still did not have what we would consider a surname. In 1861–63 they were sent to Southampton for photozincographic reproduction; 1918–19, to counter the closing peak of aviation in World War I, they were evacuated (with other Public Record Office documents) to Bodmin Prison, Cornwall; likewise in 1939–45, World War II to Shepton Mallet Prison, Somerset. From the 1740s onwards they were held, with other Exchequer records, in the Chapter House of Westminster Abbey.  No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, probably due to their tax-exempt status. Each group was led by a Royal Commissioner, who took a list of standard questions. The name by which we know the extensive survey today – Domesday – was not given to the book until almost 100 years after it was written. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, which had possibly been the subject of separate inquiry. Domesday Book attributes about 27,000 parcels of property to people bearing about 1,200 different personal names.  The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, thereby allowing William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest. The surnames that did exist were not necesareily either inherited or passed on to children; in many cases surnames were All names. (Note that the same name is not necessarily the same person.) The contents of Domesday Book and the allied records mentioned above. In the Domesday Book scribes' orthography was heavily geared towards French, most lacking k and w, regulated forms for sounds /ð/ and /θ/ and ending many hard consonant words with e as they were accustomed to do with most dialects of French at the time. But it did more than this; by the king's instructions, it endeavoured to make a national valuation list, estimating the annual value of all the land in the country, (1) at the time of Edward the Confessor's death, (2) when the new owners received it, (3) at the time of the survey, and further, it reckoned, by command, the potential value as well. The Domesday Book (also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was a record of all taxable land in England, together with such information as would indicate its worth. Domesday Book is the oldest government record held in The National Archives. The Hull Domesday project was conceived as an electronic translation of Domesday Book, coded to identify different textual elements - names, places, categories of data - and linked to databases of Domesday names and places, a facsimile of the manuscript, and mapping facilities, all these elements enclosed in a software package which could interpret the coding. So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. Domesday Landholders. The English people said this name, Domesday Book, was given to it, because, like the Day of Doom, it spared no one. The Domesday Book was a complete written record of property ownership across England, and was completed in less than a year. And the geographer, as he turns over the folios, with their details of population and of arable, woodland, meadow and other resources, cannot but be excited at the vast amount of information that passes before his eyes. The survey was ordered by William the Conqueror at Christmas and undertaken the following year. The great bulk of Domesday Book is devoted to the somewhat arid details of the assessment and valuation of rural estates, which were as yet the only important source of national wealth. As H. C. Darby noted, anyone who uses it, can have nothing but admiration for what is the oldest 'public record' in England and probably the most remarkable statistical document in the history of Europe. A new interpretation of the survey behind Domesday Book—the record of conquered England compiled on the orders of William the Conqueror … Darby states, "Anyone who attempts an arithmetical exercise in Roman numerals soon sees something of the difficulties that faced the clerks. (Note that the same name is not necessarily the same person.) The Domesday Book (also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was a record of all taxable land in England, together with such information as would indicate its worth. Little Domesday was rebound in 1320, its older oak boards being re-used. A small percentage of landholders are readily identifiable because the text supplies their titles: persons such as King Edward, Queen Edith, Earl Harold and Archbishop Stigand. Domesday Book was preserved from the late 11th to the beginning of the 13th centuries in the royal Treasury at Winchester (the Norman kings' capital). Birmingham Domesday Book.png 668 × 152; 54 KB. The book is metaphorically called by the native English, Domesday, i.e., the Day of Judgement. Though the names in the book aren’t necessarily representative of name usage in England overall, it does make sense than William took the top spot. Domesday Book is critical to understanding the period in which it was written. fishing weirs), water-mills, salt-pans (if by the sea) and other subsidiary sources of revenue; the peasants are enumerated in their several classes; and finally the annual value of the whole, past and present, is roughly estimated. From about 1100, references appear to the liber (book) or carta (charter) of Winchester, its usual place of custody; and from the mid-12th to early 13th centuries, to the Winchester or king's rotulus (roll). Commercial site with extracts from Domesday Book Domesday Book entries including translations for each settlement. On this last occasion Great Domesday was divided into two physical volumes, and Little Domesday into three volumes. A small percentage of landholders are readily identifiable because the text supplies their titles: persons such as King Edward, Queen Edith, Earl Harold and Archbishop Stigand. In both indexes the exact Latin forms given in Domesday Book and all variant spellings have been retained. These were attended by representatives of every township as well as of the local lords. Domesday Book is the earliest, and by far the most famous, English public record. As a review of taxes owed, it was highly unpopular..  Richard FitzNeal, treasurer of England under Henry II, explained the name's connotations in detail in the Dialogus de Scaccario (c.1179):. Curactes-in-Craven-Yorkshire-in-1086.png 965 × 571; 446 KB. Through comparison of what details are recorded in which counties, six Great Domesday "circuits" can be determined (plus a seventh circuit for the Little Domesday shires). That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement" ... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. Add to Wishlist; First-ever full index to people and place-names in Domesday in their original forms. The Index Locorumlists all place-names in Domesday, except where linked to an 'institution': the names of administrative units have been incorporated alphabetically into this index with the appropriate term added after the name. for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to ... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. Vol. Maitland, Domesday Book and beyond (1897). The name Domesday Book, commonly applied from the 12th century CE, may derive from ‘doom’, the term for a customary law in Anglo-Saxon England, or be a reference to the Day of Judgement, referred to in the Bible’s book of Revelation, reminding that the records in Domesday Book were final and could not be disputed. The Domesday Book records details of a survey of land ownership and taxation that was completed in 1086 under the direction of William the Conqueror. It is the record of a survey which, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, William the Conqueror ordered to be taken at Christmas 1085; a survey so thorough that … All names. The survey provided the King with information on potential sources of funds when he needed to raise money. In 1773, the government tried to publish Domesday Book for public. The Domesday book gave the names of King William's friends and even listed the number of pigs on a piece of land. This principle applies more especially to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. The unit of inquiry was the Hundred (a subdivision of the county, which then was an administrative entity). This new research, based on the earliest surviving Domesday manuscript, shows the survey was compiled remarkably quickly and then used like a modern database, where data is … Detail from Domesday Book, list forming part of first page of king's holdings. It is not a censusof the population, and the individuals named in it are almost e… Each name has its own chapter to follow. Facts about Domesday Book 9: the name in the past. 3 comments . Though the names in the book aren’t necessarily representative of name usage in England overall, it does make sense than William took the top spot.  When the Treasury moved to the Palace of Westminster, probably under King John, the book went with it. County Durham is missing because the Bishop of Durham (William de St-Calais) had the exclusive right to tax it; in addition, parts of north-east England were covered by the 1183 Boldon Book, listing areas liable to tax by the Bishop of Durham. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores (disputed titles to land) were also treated separately. The Domesday book has provided historians with a firm idea of what life was like in the mid-1080s, particularly in the areas worst hit by the Norman invasion. After stating the assessment of the manor, the record sets forth the amount of arable land, and the number of plough teams (each reckoned at eight oxen) available for working it, with the additional number (if any) that might be employed; then the river-meadows, woodland, pasture, fisheries (i.e. The Domesday Book is actually not one book but two. LIII Coluin et alii taini regis The Domesday Book of 1086 lists in the following order the tenants-in-chief in Devonshire of King William the Conqueror : Osbern FitzOsbern (died 1103), Bishop of Exeter Geoffrey de Montbray (died 1093), Bishop of Coutances The organisation of the returns on a feudal basis, enabled the Conqueror and his officers to see the extent of a baron's possessions; and it also showed to what extent he had under-tenants and the identities of the under-tenants. No data was collected for the cities of London and Winchester – probably du… In both indexes the exact Latin forms given in Domesday Book and all variant spellings have been retained. He believes the latter was completed, if not started, by William II following his assumption of the English throne; William II quashed a rebellion that followed and was based on, though not consequent on, the findings of the inquest.. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166: I. Domesday Book (Woodbridge, 1999) A list of corrections to this and the companion volume , compiled by Rosie Bevan, is available on the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy website; a list of corrections maintained by the author is also available (in PDF format) It recorded every piece of property and every particular concerning it. Presented here is the first complete, all Latin index to the Domesday Book, comprising two Indices Personarum and one Index Locorum. , The project to publish Domesday was begun by the government in 1773, and the book appeared in two volumes in 1783, set in "record type" to produce a partial-facsimile of the manuscript. The survey is extant in two parts. Domesday book . Scholars, however, have worked to identify the under-tenants, most of whom have foreign Christian names. A new interpretation of the survey behind Domesday Book—the record of conquered England compiled on the orders of William the Conqueror … Anglo-Norman and Latin bynames from the Domesday Book. It was often referred to as the "Book" or "Roll" of Winchester. Remarkably, three original manuscripts of Domesday Book survive: Exon Domesday is a fair copy of returns for the south-western counties Charles Lyttelton (PSA 1765), 29 Jan. 1756 (Minute Book VII, fol. For other uses, see, Domesday Book: an engraving published in 1900. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland is missing. 1086-Bingley-detail.jpg 455 × 294; 45 KB. Domesday Book as a cultural treasure trove. The English people said this name, Domesday Book, was given to it, because, like the Day of Doom, it spared no one. Domesday Explorer The text has been tagged with over 500,000 codes , and a powerful search engine lets you easily find entries of interest, map them, display the facsimile and the translation, along with indexes of places and names. That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement", ... not because it contains decisions on various difficult points, but because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. They can also, for a fee, download the relevant page. The alphabetised list on the following pages contains brief notes on almost 200 of the most well-known landholders at the time. The name "Domesday Book" (Middle English for "Doomsday Book") came into use in the 12th century. The list eventually became a huge book called the Domesday book. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. The Domesday Book is actually not one book but two. Domesday Book (/ˈduːmzdeɪ/ or US: /ˈdoʊmzdeɪ/; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.  As a result, the alternative spelling "Domesdei" became popular for a while. The majority of landholders in England at the time of the Domesday Book had accompanied William the Conqueror from France in 1066, and were granted areas of land previously held by English natives. The skins were washed and scraped to remove the animal hair and then stretched out to make a parchment. In 1816 a supplementary volume, separately indexed, was published containing. It records who held the land and how it was used, and also includes information on how this had changed since the Norman Conquest in 1066. " But more important are the numerous obvious omissions, and ambiguities in presentation. In both indexes the exact Latin forms given in Domesday Book and all variant spellings have been retained. The work is referred to internally as a descriptio (enrolling), and in other early administrative contexts as the king's brevia (writings). 29, 150–51, 157–61, 170–72. It is the starting point of recorded history for the majority of English villages and towns which are organized by county. ... to Willis in SAL/MS/264, fol. But it was not like a modern census. However, there are also many which we would now recognise. 1178 in Anglo-Latin, the popular name of Great Inquisition or Survey (1086), a digest in Anglo-French of a survey of England undertaken at the order of William the Conqueror to inventory his new domain, from Middle English domes, genitive of dom "day of judgment" (see doom (n.)). collection care, conservation, conservation science, domesday book, medieval history, preservation. ed.) It’s a land survey, compiled in 1086, that covered much of England and parts of Wales. The Domesday Book was made in 1086 by order of William the Conqueror in 1086, who wanted to know whom he could tax and how much. , The usual modern scholarly convention is to refer to the work as "Domesday Book" (or simply as "Domesday"), without a definite article. This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 15:03. All names. It includes sources of income but not expenses, such as castles, unless they needed to be included to explain discrepancies between pre-and post-Conquest holdings of individuals. The Hundred of Hemyock. Domesday Book, (Morris, John, gen. For as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to on those matters which it contains, its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. The Domesday Book was compiled on the orders of William the Conquerer to catalogue the ownership and value of land in the newly conquered territories of England. , The book is an invaluable primary source for modern historians and historical economists. Richard fitz Nigel, the royal treasurer (d. 1198), reported that the English called the book Domesdei, the Day of Judgement, because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, could not be appealed. Caddington Domesday 1066 Entry.png 643 × 228; 77 KB. The Index Locorumlists all place-names in Domesday, except where linked to an `institution': the names of administrative units have been incorporated alphabetically into this index with the appropriate term added after the name. Thorn, Caroline & Frank, (eds.) 238v; note by him, 10 Feb. 1756, bound in, fols. Otherwise, this contains the full details supplied by the original returns. Typically, this happened in a town, where separately-recorded properties had been demolished to make way for a castle. As the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" indignantly declared, "not a rood of land, not a peasant's hut, not an ox, cow, pig, or even a hive of bees escaped." The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:, Then, at the midwinter , was the king in Gloucester with his council ... . The name Domesday Book, commonly applied from the 12th century CE, may derive from ‘doom’, the term for a customary law in Anglo-Saxon England, or be a reference to the Day of Judgement, referred to in the Bible’s book of Revelation, reminding that the records in Domesday Book were final and could not be disputed. The reasons for—and processes behind—its creation have been the subject of debate among historians for centuries. The actual pages of the book were made from Sheepskin, 900 of them. Domesday Book describes almost all of England and more than 13,000 places are mentioned in it. Under the feudal system, the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, by virtue of his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord, and even the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant (from the Latin verb tenere, "to hold") under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, prob… The first, called "Little Domesday", covers Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. This page simply records all owner names mentioned in Domesday Book. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at Kew, London. , Domesday Book encompasses two independent works (in, originally, two physical volumes): "Little Domesday" (covering Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex), and "Great Domesday" (covering much of the remainder of England – except for lands in the north that later became Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the County Palatine of Durham – and parts of Wales bordering, and included within, English counties). The Domesday survey, therefore, recorded the names of the new holders of lands and the assessments on which their tax was to be paid. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land (sometimes termed the "Modern Domesday") which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the land that made up the then United Kingdom. When it was kept at the royal treasury, Domesday Book was called as Roll of Winchester or Book of Winchester. Other areas of modern London were then in Middlesex, Kent, Essex, etc., and are included in Domesday Book. After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Facts about Domesday Book 10: the publication. The Domesday Book is the record of the great survey of much of England, and parts of Wales, completed in 1086, done for William I of England, or William the Conqueror. The modern study of Domesday Book begins with J.H. iii-iv; longer paper in Ants Papers, 1756) when the MS was in the possession of James West, PRS, FSA (?1704-72; his signature, 1756, fol. The book was written in Latin using a goose feather quill, probably by one single Monk in Winchester Cathedral! Add to Basket. It invokes the Day of Judgment described in the Book of Revelation. , The volumes have been rebound on several occasions. merely personal nicknames or toponyms and would have varied from generation to generation. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online. K.S.B. At the time of the Domesday Book, Devonshire was still sub-divided into the old Anglo-Saxon hundreds. Domesday Book is a detailed survey and valuation of landed property in England at the end of the 11th century. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights, generally military followers of the tenant-in-chief (often his feudal tenants from Normandy), who thereby became their overlord. , The two volumes (Great Domesday and Little Domesday) remained in Westminster save for temporary releases, until the late 20th century. There are 53 entries, including the first entry for the king himself followed by the Devon Domesday Book tenants-in-chief. Written in Medieval Latin, it was highly abbreviated and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. Some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. It is evident that William desired to know the financial resources of his kingdom, and it is probable that he wished to compare them with the existing assessment, which was one of considerable antiquity, though there are traces that it had been occasionally modified. The survey was ordered by William the Conqueror at Christmas 1085 and undertaken the following year. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out 'How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire.' The latter reference was coined because of the aforementioned location at Winchester. An Index of Latin Personal and Place Names in Domesday Book K.S.B. That is, of course, logical. For example, the section of the Devonshire chapter concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists one hundred and seventy-six holdings held in-chief by him. The name Domesday Book is therefore a function of its awesome reputation among the English. 33); exhibited to SA by the Rev. This is a list of all the surnames mentioned in Domesday which are still current in the UK. ", Darby also notes the inconsistencies, saying that "when this great wealth of data is examined more closely, perplexities and difficulties arise.  The Exon Domesday (named because the volume was held at Exeter) covers Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, and one manor of Wiltshire. The Hundred of Hemyock covered fifteen place names.Hemyock was the chief manor, or head of the hundred.Awliscombe and some other places were sub-divided into several individual holdings or manors, each held by a different person, so listed separately in the Domesday Book. The name ‘Domesday Book’ was not adopted until the late 12th Century. What was the purpose of the survey? The Domesday Book is one of the most renowned, respected and revered public records ever to have been published. These were mainly: After a great political convulsion such as the Norman conquest, and the following wholesale confiscation of landed estates, William needed to reassert that the rights of the Crown, which he claimed to have inherited, had not suffered in the process. The Domesday Book was created a couple of decades after the Norman Invasion, at a time when the name William was very fashionable, thanks to William the Conqueror. These include fragments of custumals (older customary agreements), records of the military service due, of markets, mints, and so forth. Subsequent issues had rotating editors. This page simply records all owner names mentioned in Domesday Book. , "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock. Media in category "Domesday Book" The following 38 files are in this category, out of 38 total. 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