Email correspondence to Adam Martinson. Jørgensen, D., pers. 6 (update 2012). 1978. There is evidence for this occurring in other large-bodied snakes. Here we report only on trends in native grasslands and ‘natural areas’ (which includes pastures, see below) because anthropogenic threats are relatively lower within these habitat types than within cultivated grasslands, for example (see Threats and Limiting Factors). Government of Alberta. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not offered any US federal or international protection. 2008; Radiotelemetry of 19 adult snakes (females), Jørgensen and Gates unpub. Lombard North Group Limited and Reid Crother & Partners Limited (LNG and RCP). Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? There is a limited ability to detect range-wide trends in population size, but if we use distribution as a surrogate (see Canadian Range), then there was a historical decline in population size pre-1970. They are eaten by many larger predators. Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation. It is tan in colour with darker bands or blotches along its back and dark tail rings which are usually olive to brown. Power point presentation. Unfortunately, this location has not been studied since 2006 and no information exists on whether or not the population trend observed at the site has continued (Hofman pers. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 2011a. Mitchell, J. C., R. E. J. Students will understand the origin of food energy. The temperature can increase up to 7.5° Celsius which helps with the incubation of the eggs. The size of its global range is estimated at 200,000 – 2,500,000 km2 (NatureServe 2013). In 2012, for example, the Alberta EOO and IAO for this species were estimated at 46,012 km2 and 2,244 km2, respectively (AESRD and ACA 2012; estimates were made using similar methods to those used by COSEWIC). Chiszar, D., K. Stimac, T. Boyer. In Canada, prairie rattlesnakes are native to the southern provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. (2014) found little evidence for genetic differentiation between Prairie Rattlesnakes separated by both the City of Medicine Hat and the Trans-Canada Highway (8,535 – 30,291 vehicles per day; Alberta Transportation 2011). Intentional persecution en masse and destruction of hibernacula are thought to have played a role in the historical decline of Prairie Rattlesnake in Alberta (AESRD and ACA 2012). Assuming the sample of hibernacula studied are representative of all Canadian locations, and that rattlesnakes are extirpated from the four inactive locations, there has been a ~ 30% decline in the number of Prairie Rattlesnake locations in Canada from the 1950s to the 1990s (i.e.,40 years/three generations). In Canada, hibernacula are typically associated with river valleys, and short-distance migrants tend to remain at low elevations in the river valley (from the river’s edge to the crest of the valley), whereas long-distance migrants tend to spend at least half of their time in upland habitats (Figure 10; Jørgensen 2009). Macartney, M., P. Gregory, B. Charland. 2013) and Alberta (Natural Regions Committee 2006; Table 2), is used for some form of agriculture (dry land farming, irrigation and rangeland). Environment Canada. NatureServe. Prairie Rattlesnakes display behavioural polymorphism with regards to migration distance. KHK Consulting Ltd., Edmonton, AB. Species at Risk Manager, Nature Saskatchewan, Regina, SK. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo. Green circles represent observation records (observations outside hatched areas are historical and/or assumed to be accidental translocations). 2012), two species with typical migratory distances considerably shorter than those of Prairie Rattlesnakes. Although they reduce the biomass of vegetation, they often also enhance the digestibility, protein content, and productivity of grasses and forbs at colony sites (especially young colony sites) that are preferred by large herbivores. The dashed line is the distribution in the late 1960s according to Stebbins (1966 as cited by Pendlebury 1977). Email correspondence to A. Martinson. Generation Time = age at maturity + [1 / annual adult mortality rate]. Land ownership within the Canadian range of the Prairie Rattlesnake is varied. There is evidence for a historical natural disjunction within the Canadian range of this species that is very likely to persist over the next three generations (Frenchman River subpopulation: see Canadian Range; Habitat Trends). More than 95,000 km of roads cover the Grasslands Natural Region in Alberta, which includes the range of Prairie Rattlesnakes (Alberta Environmental Protection 1997, as cited by AESRD and ACA 2012). 1998). The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. The authors speculate underpasses for large creeks and agricultural drains served as conduits for snake movement. Male juveniles have an average size of 28.5cm in length, and females have an average size of 28.2cm. comm. 2011. Oxford, OH: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. A test of the hierarchical model of habitat selection using Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus c. catenatus). 2. 2008). (see Fluctuations and Trends; Threats and Limiting Factors). 73 pp. Proctor et al. Biological Conservation 137: 117-124. In the last 40 years (1974 – 2013) declines in abundance of Prairie Rattlesnakes have been inferred anecdotally at a few Canadian locations, related to persecution, industrial development, road mortality and/or natural factors: Probably the most convincing evidence of a local population decline is provided by Proctor et al. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39(1): 1-92. COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government science members and the co-chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. 1974. A conservative estimate of the 14,900 (13,600 – 18,900) mature individuals in Canada (to the nearest 100) is achieved by adding the abundance estimates presented above for Saskatchewan (2,227 [1550 – 2904]) and Alberta (12,672 [12,078 - 15,972]). 2013). In a study by Gardiner (2012), Prairie Rattlesnakes were most frequently found within 0 - 1m of a burrow. 1983. burrowing owls [Athene cunicularia] and rattlesnakes [Crotalus sp. Existing hibernacula setback guidelines for Prairie Rattlesnakes appear to be voluntary on private land and only enforceable on public land (Government of Alberta 2011; Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment 2013b), and even then, these guidelines may sometimes be relaxed for specific developments (AESRD and ACA 2012). Or disputed records are outside the solid line burrows were made by a panel experts! So often that they are venomous s in landscape Architecture ( 2011 ) Canada. 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