However, the Act’s innovative features have not been sustained even in those states, such as Rajasthan studied in detail by the authors, where they worked very well initially. Ambily,(2016). The suggestion of a potential disincentive effect on labour effort and participa- tion is, however, worrying, as it would have implications in terms of missed op- portunities for development. While Jenkins and Manor’s attempt to analyze different facets of NREGA implementation is commendable and should be essential reading for anybody interested in understanding the nature of state, politics and mobilization for such rights, the book needs to extend the discourse beyond the politics of enactment, implementation and impact, or in short the politics of governance. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Grey (or gray) literature is literature produced by individuals or organizations outside of commercial and/or academic publishers. 1 The act was subsequently renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). Introduction 2. The second feature is the role of the gram sabha (local village council) in deciding the nature of the works to be taken up (tanks, roads, water conservation, drainage and so on) which did not work as expected due to the diminishing functionality of village councils and the failure of efforts to revive it. You will also put forward a conclusion - based on your analysis of those studies. If you have purchased a print title that contains … The first is that the program is inclusive in rural areas. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an execution for terminating the poverty and unemployment in rural areas. (Machi, L.A. & McEvoy, B.T. that children living in South Africa face a risk of being poor comparable to that of the average world inhabitant. It is also noted that there is considerable shift in education level from illiterates to functional literates (45.80% to 54.20%) and improvement in health status (89.20% to 97.50%). These two arguments look at NREGA as a role model for “governance rights”3 and deal specifically with the roles of civil society and local tiers of governance, or panchayats, in India. A literature can be an end in itself (an analysis of what is known about a topic) or a prologue to and rationale for engaging in primary research. 7In the short span of time that NREGA has been in operation,6 it has contributed to positive change in the rural landscape in multiple ways. The politics of “good governance” has some element of patronage linked with it where the state decides what is good for you. Politics and the Right to Work: India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. This chapter is similar to what is called the list of references and its main purpose is to collect all the relevant sources of information and organize them in a logical sequence. There is no such equivalent political mobilization to defend the rights of workers, even though the number of families that benefit from it is as large, if not greater, than the groups that benefit from reservation. Both NREGA and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this review. It lays down guidelines for the process of seeking work and sanction of work as well as defining a wage-material ratio. reference managers However, any attempt to understand the passage and implementation of NREGA solely as a social security scheme to help the poor is overlooking its political significance in altering and redefining the political economy of growth and redistribution in India. Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. There arise problems under this act like problems with the authorities. Aadhar is a biometric authentication scheme launched by the government in 2009. However, the government refuses to strengthen NREGA even though it is willing to offer billions of rupees to corporates as tax cuts. Such models of governance are largely concerned with processes based on an administrative/bureaucratic understanding of what works best; however, these models may weaken the potentially more sustainable organic struggles for basic rights emerging from public coalitions. The politics of “good governance” has some element of patronage linked with it where the state decides what is good for you. Works And Their Impacts A Rapid Assessment in Maharashtra. and services by all households and But the second axis of locating NREGA in the broader political economy of India is not so straightforward. In that sense, the book raises many more questions than it provides answers. They experienced social, economic and political empowerment along with an improvement in their leadership skills and decision making capacity. The literature on NREGA is too vast for us to be able to do justice to it in this short paper. Every resident in t, There are four features of NREGA that are highlighted by the authors as central to understanding the politics of NREGA implementation. Politics, especially the one that prioritizes rights, is not always peaceful and cannot be controlled only through good governance. Keeping track of the literature you encounter can be facilitated by using a reference manager. Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. There is no denying that the scheme is outstanding in its vision, but due to certain loopholes, it has been partially successful in achieving its goal of eradicating poverty. Both these measures led to significant public exclusion (mostly of the poor) from the program. 2 *1 Research Scholar, ... & NREGA Card. it has contributed to positive change in the rural landscape in multiple ways. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID-19) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel). Your literature review should include: an introduction which explains how your review is organized. The book traces NREGA’s journey from its mobilization and enactment in parliament through its implementation and goes on to examine the act’s impact on local politics and governance. 2015. and there is an acceptance with alternative hypothesis. Let us look at this in more detail. However, the strength of this feature has slowly diminished, first by the mandatory linking of NREGA job cards with bank accounts and then to Aadhar9 registration. If these documents also contain your address, it can serve both as Proof ... Review of Literature Kuldeep Singh and Anand Singh Koden (2011) 1. Professional Institutional Network [Studies} Knowledge For Action Convergence . Mahatma Gandhi Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA No 42, later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act" or MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'. The probability of child poverty is vigorously reduced if a household receives wage earnings, but is affected by households’ demographic structure. A well-constructed literature review identifies major themes associated with a topic, and it demonstrates where there is agreement, and disagreement, about that topic. Given that, unlike Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh did not traditionally engage with civil society, the performance of NREGA in the two states offers important insight into the role of state capacity, civil society engagement and the politics of development at state level. With song and dance and drum beat, I will continue with the scheme.” Almost a decade after the NREGA was enacted; the outburst of Mr. Modi is as much recognition of the impact of the program on the ground as it is a reflection of the deep rooted hatred of the scheme. regarding work; caste discrimination; problems regarding wages; the gender discriminated problems; of getting bonus is too low. pp xii+323. The answer to this question may lie in the nature of politics surrounding the NREGA. NREGA has successfully drawn women, scheduled castes and other marginalized communities into the scheme, while helping to raise wages in rural areas.7 Indirectly, it has contributed to the rejuvenation of the rural economy through creation of infrastructure and non-farm employment in rural areas. The act lays down guidelines on the distribution of funds between material consumed and wages paid in any work under NREGA. That is, unlike in previous such schemes, there are no exclusion criteria and every rural adult is entitled to participation in NREGA. For MIS issue, register at https://servicedesk.nic.in or call at 1800 111 555: Site designed and developed by National Informatics Center Contents provided and maintained by Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development, GOI. However, despite a supporting majority from the Congress party, the NFSA was passed just months before the end of the UPA-2 government whereas NREGA was passed by UPA-1 in 2005. The argument that NREGA is a precursor of a new category of rights which the authors rightly call “governance rights,” is certainly valid in case of NREGA. What are the subheadings you need to cover? The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the largest social protection programme in the world that provides 100 days of unskilled wage employment to any household residing in rural areas whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. There is a goodness of fit between NREGA and change in income after working under NREGA as, because the calculated value (8) is greater than that of table value (3.841). Both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA were found to very useful platforms for the empowerment of women and thereby aiding in the eradication of poverty. Second, agriculture appears to be more of a survival strategy than part of a poverty exit strategy. The imp, of work. It is the farmer unions that agitated against NREGA and in some states even managed to get it suspended during peak agricultural seasons in part because farmers held NREGA responsible for rising costs of cultivation as labor wages increased alongside workers’ attempts to use NREGA as a bargaining chip. London: Hurst & Company. Book > Student Reference > Research Methods & Evaluation × × × Resources to help you teach online. This act was passed in September 2005 under the UPA government of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of a particular topic. It also endeavours to forward a few recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the said scheme. Find items in libraries near you. The question that really needs to be asked is what changed between these two moments, the first being when the NREGA was credited for re-election of the Congress party with increased majority in 2009, and the other in 2015 when NREGA was declared “a monument of failure.”. The Literature Review has a number of important functions: It shows that you have read the work of other researchers in your particular area. accepted levels, to protect them from No person to look after their children at work place and provision of facilities at work place was the major constraint and suggestion provided by respondents. An inconsistency regarding the, socio-economic condition between people of, are canal renovation and remaining is land, There is a goodness of fit between NREGA and wome, value (5.120) is greater than that of the ta, Similarly, there is a goodness of fit between NREGA and benefits occurred in the, the calculated value (18) is greater than that of the table value (7.815). The literature review prepared for this study on Impact of MGNREGA reflects the findings of various professionals and researchers were presented below. Since the NREGA was passed as an act of parliament, it is justiciable and it is this feature of the program that makes it different from other social protection initiatives of the government. However, blaming the current regime led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) alone for the current state of affairs as far as NREGA is concerned is unfair since the process of dilution of the NREGA was initiated by the Congress Party led United Progressive Alliance (UPA). The literary review isn’t any different in form from any other kind of academic texts as it also has the basic parts. However, any attempt to understand the passage and implementation of NREGA solely as a social security scheme to help the poor is overlooking its political significance in altering and redefining the political economy of growth and redistribution in India. EPW articles on NREGA Download Binder. In an attempt to respond to the needs of the country's poor, the Indian government launched an ambitious workfare scheme, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in 2005, which guaranteed hundred days of employment in unskilled manual labour at a minimum wage to every rural household each year. Azam, Mehtabul. Right at the outset of the book, the authors clearly lay down six major hypotheses around three themes—evaluation of NREGA, debates on political economy in India and the comparative study of development politics. The language of governance is in fact very similar to that of good administration, a central premise of which is to avoid any kind of confrontation. NCMP is the agenda of governance agreed upon by coalition partners during the UPA government. Within reference literature, specialized works constitute the majority of individual titles published, but general reference books, dictionaries, and encyclopedias have the largest printings. Writing a Literature Review. Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. How many sources will you need? Himanshu, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay, and R M Sharan. The present paper backed with empirical evidences from a rural and tribal setup of Jharkhand, attempts to assess the institutional and non-institutional impediments which are encumbering the desired accomplishment of the scheme at the grass-root level. 2011. [first in … Nothing could convey more obviously the politics of NREGA than the speech of the current Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi, on 27th February 2015; his first speech during the parliament’s budget session after becoming Prime Minister. THE HINDU (2006). A major question then is why there were no counter mobilizations to prevent these changes if the program was successful in effecting a fundamental transformation in how social protection initiatives are implemented. Every resident in the country is provided a unique number based on fingerprints and iris scans. The study also reflected on the profile of women beneficiaries stating that 38.33 per cent belonged to young age, SC/ST category (55.00%), non Even at the time of severe economic slowdown, with unemployment at the highest level in decades and real wages declining, there is hardly any political mobilization in favor of using NREGA to raise rural incomes. MNREGA has succeeded in increasing employment better than any previous government scheme. It provides more detailed information about studies already referred to briefly in the introduction to your FYP. Issue 3 2018. Written in a lucid style with academic rigor, the chapters are full of insights on the dynamics of local and state level politics, but also on the micro issues of implementation and governance. What makes NREGA different from such interventions is the inclusive right-based approach backed by legislation. The first two arguments concern the performance of NREGA and its significance for alternative development. calculated value (3) is less than that of the table value (9.488). A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Literature Review Matrix As you read and evaluate your literature there are several different ways to organize your research. The fourth feature is the provision of compensation for wage delays and unemployment allowance. On the basis of observation, it is concl, The National Rural Employment Generation Scheme, NREGs Act 2005 covered 330 districts in India; whe. While the NAC in UPA-2 had the same set of key players, it failed to persuade the government to take effective steps to prevent dilution of NREGA or speedy passage of NFSA. Search. NREGA is a ‘green’ and. COVID-19 Resources. Chapter 7 then uses these observations at state level to examine the political impact and policy evolution at national level. The null hypothesis is to be rejected and there is an acceptance, Similarly, there is no goodness of fit between NREG, than that of table value (3.841). The authors present six interconnected arguments concerning the relationship between politics and NREGA. “The Impact of Indian Job Guarantee Scheme on Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.” Institute for the Study of Labour, IZA Discussion Papers 6548. The study examines whether the women get empowered. Poli... Jenkins, Rob and James Manor. 8 See, Afridi and Iversen (2014); Aiyar, Mehta and Samji (2011). L.J Chaarlas, J.M Velmurugan in their study ‘Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment, Guarantee Act, 2005(MGNREGA): Issues and Cha, Government must critically study the impac, poverty scheme is not mitigated from its initial or exact or actual path. Chapter 8 discusses the implications for politics and development. The next two arguments are embedded in the political economy discourse in India and make important claims regarding the inclusiveness of political interventions and the changing nature of “clientelist” politics. The third set of arguments is relevant for the comparative study of development politics. An empirical research report written in American Psychological Association (APA) style always includes a written literature review, but it is important to review the literature early in the research process for several reasons. While individuals played a role, they are limited in function to what ruling party/parties allow; in effect also a characteristic of the political ideology and orientation of the political party. : - 15 -9672 Name and address of the college K. V. Pendharkar College Of Arts, Science & Commerce Dombivli (E), … This same transformative potential however, is also what attracts backlash against NREGA, the issue being whether the politics of governance is sufficient to ensure that it also leads to politics of contestation generating broader mobilization against the deep rooted structures of inequality. While it is naive to assume that mere enactment of NREGA can lead to the changing of a structure of power relations embedded in unequal access to assets and political power, it certainly has the potential to be a tool for mobilization against inequality as fostered by structures of power. Literature Review. These arguments suggest a departure from the existing understanding of political economy of state which so far has been characterized as influenced by business organizations and the elite. As a legislative act it provides for compensation in the form of an unemployment allowance for delays in wage payment and as compensation for failure of the government to provide jobs. The authors present six interconnected arguments concerning the relationship between politics and NREGA. Both these measures led to significant public exclusion (mostly of the poor) from the program. Not only did the mobilization gain political visibility of declining farmer incomes, it also succeeded in getting Rs. support and facilitate access to goods References - CAplus - Worldwide coverage of many scientific disciplines all in one source ... Finding these methods and protocols in the literature is an arduous and time consuming effort. The National Food Security Act (NFSA) emerged from the same struggle that the authors point out, involving many of the same decision makers in the National Advisory Council (NAC) under the 2009-2014 UPA government. The authors’ argument that the Indian state “offers openings for voices seeking to effect progressive social change in the interest of non-elite groups” (p.239) has never been in question. A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article.A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Since 2010-11, NREGA was not only diluted in character by several changes in the nature of work, public access to the scheme and the wages offered its laborers. For one, being intrinsically self targeting, it promotes the social inclusion and economic empowerment of marginalised groups. Share. The book has eight chapters including the introductory first chapter. Through this Act employment, been raised and women become empowered. To this end, the Act guarantees 100 days of annual MMS user may kindly download and install new APK after uninstalling the old APK. The main aim is to reduce alleviating poverty, migration, limiting child labor. English literature is a subject that requires a deep knowledge to know the devices used by authors and poets. The Literature Review chapter provides a detailed review, discussion and comment on published work that contributes to your own study. Clearly, politics underlies all schemes and legislations in the country, but a distinguishing feature of NREGA is that it also attempts to alter the nature of class-relations in the countryside, which has implications for its survival as well as success. Ultimately, the NAC, which played a crucial role in drafting and taking forward much key legislation during UPA-1 government, was seen as ineffective in UPA-2.5. This book is an attempt at analyzing the “politics” of NREGA (or the right to work). In fact, the largest opposition to NREGA did not come from the neoliberal economists or the corporate sector but from farmers and landowners. notified under the NREGA with effect from April 1, 2008. The chapters in this book are based on the authors’ fieldwork in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP) oriented around qualitative interviews with various stakeholders. A literature review summarizes and synthesizes the existing scholarly research on a particular topic. Alternative hypothesis is to be rejected and there is an, Similarly, there is goodness of fit between NREGA and change in income after working under, NREGA as calculated value (8) is greater than that of, From the study it can be summarized that the benefits occurred in the place under the scheme is, high. Interestingly, the role of the judiciary was far more proactive in this case than for the NREGA. Chapter 8 discusses the implications for politics and development. Implementing the scheme, while helping to raise wages in 2017-18 were almost half of the you... To guide research for a literature review source: a literature review will describe, analyse, summarise evaluate... 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Works and Their Impacts a Rapid Assessment in Maharashtra is vigorously reduced if a household receives earnings... Than for the way it was extended to 14 other districts the survey is done through and. Commonly used in the nature of politics surrounding the NREGA with effect from April 1 2008! Or research article and a stand-alone literature review, we have various literature review is ``... The administrative machinery but the second axis of locating NREGA in the country is provided a unique number based fingerprints! The current Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi, on 27 during the he.
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